DECREE N.338 MITF005006



The habilitation is the qualification necessary for the teaching activity.

Until today, habilitation is to be otained after an institutionally recognised course educational training - term of one year- or through a public competition.  



It's an agreement that identifies the school institutions ( and not only). This agreement- whose dossier is filed at the Secretary office of the schools- recognizes the agreement's aims, its competences and the authority of of the body responsible for management. 


The European Association of Education (Association Européenne des Enseignants), founded in Paris in the year 1956, is an organization which promotes the understanding of the European issues among the teachers of all the member states. 



To AGe associations belong groups of parents, that drawing inspiration from the values of the Italian Constitution, from the International Declarations of Human Rights for Teens and Young People and from the Christian Ethic, want to take part to the school and social life, so that the family can become a political subject. 

 The AGe association provides an educational training for families within the school institutions, in family policies but also in the media and educational dimension. 



Acronym for Italian Library Association. 



School Work Alternance is an educational method, that allows students of all curricula of secondary schools, to have a part of their educational and professional traineeship for a company or for a firm.  

The educational projects and the traineeships for school-work alternce are addressed to all students between the ages of 15 and 18.  

In compliance with the Law no. 107, July 13Th, 2015, all students of Technical High Schools must fulfill a maximum of 400 hours in the above-mentioned measures.



The Italian Anticorruption Authority for the evaluation and the transparency of public administrations ( ANAC) has assumed the competences of Supervisory Authority on Public Contracts ( Works, Services and Supply) (AVCP). Lalegge n. 190/2012 ha individuato la

Law no. 192/2012 has already identified the Independent Commission for the Evaluation, Transparency and Integrity of Public Administrations (CiVIT) as the Italian Anticorruption Authority. ANAC represents the instrument to put into practice strategies of prevention and contrast of corruption and illegality within the Public Administration. 


It's a second level analysis applied to particular areas that are identified as " risky" from a first level check-up. It is carried out by using detection tools and processing of data ( surveys, interviews, data collection charts, 7 QT instruments, in particular Cause and Effect Diagram, Bar Graphs, Pareto Diagram and Scatter Diagrams). From the results we can also see the framework of the phenomenon for reasonable choices of the project. 



Founded in the year 1988, it's the professional association of all school principals in Italy. Among its institutional aims, there are also objectives of promotion and development and the progress of the public school. In addition to this, this association represents the legitimate interests and the professional needs of its members.


It has been founded on 21 April 1947. Its aim is the creation of a common body in defence of charter and secular school institutions. 


Abbreviation of National Agency for the Development of School Autonomy. It's the promoter of educational research and teaching innovation.  

ANSAS is engaged with the educational training of teachers, ATA staff and principals. It takes into consideration developing activities concerning the international cooperation among schools and universities and organizes supervising activities of the main phenomena of the national school system, by recording the innovative processes and experiences. It also cooperates with the Directorates General of the Ministry in order to realize training activities and at service of the school staff, projects of international and community cooperation, data base for adult education. 



With the no. 64, Decree Law  21-2-2008, a regulation was issued and  the ANVUR (National Agency for the evaluation of universities and research institutes) was established, by defining its structure and function. In particular ANVUR defines “the criteria and the parameters for the periodic evaluation of universities and research institutes" in order to identify the Itallian excellences and structures with high quality standards to which assign prizes and awards.  



Technical assistants work as employees for a professional technical support  in the context of secondary schools. They belong to ATA staff.



Working method that reveals the critical points of the activities and of the production processes. Self- diagnosis consists in the input and output analysis in order to meet the needs of the customers. 



Process of analysis of its own organization's services and of the organisational process that give their contribution to this creation. You can also compare it with other facilities and with the  praxis of other associations that belong to the same sector (Best in class) and that have an excellent evaluation. . The activity of  benchmarking is addressed to the reasearch and to the application of the best operational and organizational practices (best practice), with the objective to reach better performances and consequently better results.


SEN ( Italian Translation: BES) 

SEN students ( Special Education Needs) have the right to study through a personalized learning process- applied with particular allocation concerning the peculiarity, the intensiveness and the length of amendment-  in compliance with Law no. 53/2003.  


It's a technique that promotes the production of ideas by a group, enabling each component to express all their thoughts. In each session of. brainstorming, after the presentation of the topic by the leader, in just  5-10 minutes every  participant keeps a record of everything that comes to mind. Afterwards, in rotation each individual presents the first one of his/her ideas until finishing them through different rotations.The most peculiar element is the fact, that no idea - at the moment of the presentation- can be considered as right or wrong, because in this phase it is not allowed to express critical opinions of what it has been said. (the term brainstorming derives from the English, storming = tempesta and brain = cervelli). 



System of business management, where the organized business is not seen as a complex of functions, but as a combination of processes. This approach is justified by the need of unifying different activities as a function of a common objective: the satisfaction of the final client of the organization, because what is only viewed and perceived by him/her provides an added value. The process management emphasises the proficiency of the process and its flexibility ( rapid adaptation at lower cost in a time of environmental change). From this follows an organisational change: the traditional functional and hierarchical culture - based on the function of the task- gives way to an organisation for results, where the aggregation of competences prevails on the functional ownership.Therefore, it is necessary a new organisational figure: the process owner. He/She works crosswise with respect to the traditional tasks and presides over efforts to improve the process performance.  improvement activities



From the school year  2002/2003, Italian regions have been delegated to define a real school calendar, where you can identify:
- starting date of the lessons
- end date of the lessons
- closing days for Christmas and Easter holidays
-  other possible days of suspension from school activities 

The only constraint imposed by the regulation consists in the accomplishment of 200 school days- counted by considering a frequency of six days a week- to ensure the validity of the school year.

What schools do 
In accordance with thir own regional school calendar, the automous school institutions can decide to advance or postpone the starting date of the lessons or to identify other possiible days of suspension from school activities, by accomplishing  200 school days at least.  



The Service School Charter has been adopted by the School Board, after the deliberation of the Teaching Board: this is a mandatory resolution concerning the pedagogical and  educational aspects. This document concerns a context of transparency and responsibility of the school towards students, families and external bodies and rules some important aspects of the school life, such as the organization of the public administration services, the relationship betweeen school and the students' families, the documents and their public access, the their transparency, the complaints procedures, security and privacy. The Service School Charter has been issued in compliance with the D.P.C.M ( Prime Ministerial Decree) of 7 June 1995.  All school institutions were provided with information concerning the production and the adoption of the  “Service School Charter”, by attaching the  “General Scheme of Reference” for its structure



First level analysis that involves all the phases of the process of rendering of the service. It is performed through a guided brainstorming able to identify the main strenghts and weaknesses of the organization. By analyzing these criteria from a systemic point of view there are to find the areas of concern where it is possible to apply the in-depth analysis. The final product is the Q and nQ map of the Institute, i.e. the form containing its strenghts and weaknesses.


CED / Data Processing Center

The Data Processing Center (Italian acronym:CED) is the organisational unit that coordinates and preserves the equipment and the data management services.This Center is to find inside companies and within Public Administration and is known by the name of Data Processing Center. 



The certificate of the skills acquired by the students that finish their 10 year study cycle is necessarily required  from the year 2010, with the D.M ( Ministerial Decree no.9 27th January 2010. 

This requirement concerns all the students that finish their 10 year study cycle; therefore it corresponds with the end of the second year of upper secondary schools. 

All school subjects are involved.The class council is responsible for this certification and consequently it is the result of a collective decision.

IThe model requires to reach an adequate level for the following areas:

area of languages (Italian language, foreign language, other languages),
area of mathematics
area of science and technology
area of history and society
PIt is also necessary to recognize the level reached by distinguishing:

If the entry level isn' t reached, it will be provided the wording ENTRY LEVEL NOT ATTAINED , by specifying the related motivation that is also mentioned in the report of the final scrutiny.



It identifies a series of rules and guidelines developed by the International Organization for Standardisation  (Italian acronym: ISO), thar recognize the condition for a system of quality management by achieving the following objectives: to carry out the business processes, to improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of the product and in the rendering of the service, to gain and increase the customers' satisfaction.



Specific exams at accredited centers certify the mastery and proficiency of language skills in accordance with the  Common European Framework of Reference for Languages  (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2)



It's the specification of the academic qualification and it is useful to access to the habilation for teaching in all types of secondary schools.  



If compared to the traditional classes, characterized by a permanent group of students, the policy of open classes enables to temporarily break the unity of the group, addressing the students to different classes or specifically planned, by taking into consideration the individual knowledge of each student and the related learning ability.



CLIL (Acronym for Content and Language Integrated Learning) is a method of teaching and learning that enables to learn curricular contents ( the common "school subjects" ) by using a different language from Italian.It is an immersive teaching and learning approach that is targeted to the "building" of language skills and communication abilities in a foreign language together with the development and acquisition of disciplinary knowledge.  CLIL is a teaching method widespread all over Europe and it is compulsory in the last year of the technical institutes.  (DD.PP.RR. 87,88 and 89/2010).



The Teaching Board is composed by all teachers of the School Institution. It is chaired by the Principal and he is also responsible for their deliberations.
The Teaching Board sits in extracurricular times and it is convened by the Principal or under request of one third of their components, anytime it is necessary to take important decisions.



Set of resources (knowledge, abilities and attitudes) a person needs to be adequately included in a professional context, and more generally to deal with his/her personal and professional development.



The School Principal is the coordinator of the educational and teaching activities. He has got internal organizational tasks concerning didactics and his legal responsibility also  concerns the career certifications of the students (evaluation form, competence examination, diplomas)



In lower secondary schools the class council is composed by all the class teachers and by 4 parents'  representatives; it is chaired by the Principal or by a teacher of the Class Council, delegated by the Principal.  
In upper secondary schools, the class council is composed by all the class teachers, by 2 parents' representatives and by 2 students' representatives. it is chaired by the Principal or by a teacher of the Class Council, delegated by the Principal.



Collegial Body concerning the School Institution. It is composed by the teachers' representatives, by the ATA staff, by parents, students ( only in upper secondary schools) and by the School Principal. The School Board is administratively autonomous and it is also able to take decisions - on proposals from the Executive Board-  concerning the organization of school life and activities, within the limits of the financial resources.



Certificate of a study programm that certifies the acquisition of a given ability or knowledge that enables to do only some training moduls to reach a specific educational objective.  



It is a score obtained during the school triennium, that must be added to the scoreline of the written and oral tests to define the final mark of the State Exam.’For the attribution of the school credit you must take into consideration: the average of the school marks, behaviour marks, the absence or presence of fails ( insufficient marks). The maximum score consists in 25 points of school credit. 



This is the School study plan. By respecting the number of hours established at a national level, every school institution builds an uniform framework where the school subjects and most important activities are established at a national level. The most important activities, the supplementary ones and the flexibility of spaces.



It's about personal information that enable the direct identification of the person concerned.



It's about personal information that enable to reveal racial and ethnic origins, religious beliefs, philosophical ideas, political opinions, membership of political parties, trade unions, or political, philosophical, religious organizations, personal information about  state of health and  sexual life.



Every sort of information concerning a physical and legal entity, institution or association identified ot that can be idientified- even indirectly- with reference to other forms of information, including a personal identification number.



In compliance with the D.M. 80 and the ’O.M. 92, students with insufficiency during the first or the final scrutiny are subjected to the suspension of the final evaluation. They have to take part to the remedial initiatives suggested by the Class Council and must write the remedial tests in September.



"It's the analytical description of the functional compromising of the psycho-physical condition of students with disabilites"  (D.P.R. 24/02/1994).

Therefore, it's a certificate that defines the operating methods of an individual clinically examined and that summarizes this information within a psychological and functional "context" that enables to understand the area of the pathological disorder at the moment of the evaluation.



Constructive debate between teachers and students targeted to support students in their process of self-awareness. At S. Freud Institute, this mutual form of dialogue is "cultivated" everyday for a ready and effective sharing and management of feelings and emotions. 



Method of management concerning online teachig, thanks to the utilization of multimedia platforms, such as Microsodt Teams, We School and video lessons. Distance Teaching is regulated by a specific regulation that defines the behavioural and organizational conditions of the fruition.   



It's a teaching method that focuses on an individualised learning activity for the students in order to strenghten specific skills or to acquire particular competences concerning their method of study. 



It's a teaching method where the roleof technology innovation  (IWT, tablet, educational softwares,  e-book) creates an oral or visual multichannel educational environment that simplifies the attention span, the memorization of the contents and the interaction of the students towards the lessons.  



It's a teaching method concerning the adaptation of educational interventions to the individual characteristics of the students, to help them in the understanding and in the achievement of the school contents, by taking into consideration their cognitive style and their learning times. 



The teaching method of flipped classroom "flips" the traditional teaching and learning methodology. The classromm becomes a proper "workspace for debate where students learn by comparing with their peers and with teachers". Therefore, the teacher provides their students the learning material for an autonomous self-exploration of the topic and then the teachers play the role of "facilitator" where the students are the real protagonists of an active learning. 



This denomination is no longer in use and has been replaced by Final State Examination in upper secondary schools: it is the final oral and written test that certifies the end of study of theupper secondary schools in Italy.  


RIGHT -DUTY TO EDUCATION (d. lgs. 15 April 2005, no.76)

In compliance with the Education Act  no. 53 March, 28/2003, the compulsory education - from a previous lenght of nine years- has been  redefined, by ensuring the right- duty to education for 12 years at least or until the achievement of a professional qualification within 18 years old.
The starting- point of this right and duty occurs at the first class of primary school and continues in some of the school- curricula of secondary schools until you obtain the diploma or a certificate professional qualification - with a minimum  lenght of three years.  


It consists in a subsidy to promote a personalized form of education for disabled students that attend charter schools. To obtain this contribution there are no income limits. 



The School Dowry is a subsidy provided by the Region of Lombardy under the form of a voucher, that you can spend at partner establishments or accredited schools addressed to all students resident in the Region of Lombardy, according to your ISEE certificate. The School Dowry for charter primary schools, but also for lower ans upper secondary schools is composed by two components that can be combined: the “School Voucher ” (including a  “Supplementary Income” e “Contribution for disability ") and a “Credit for Merit”.


SLD ( Italian: DSA)

SLD  – Specific Learning Disorders - are neurodevelopmental  disorders concerning the ability of reading, writing and calculating in a correct way that arise at the schooling beginning.
In accordance with the specific SLD disorders are divided into: dyslexia, dysgraphia, anortography and dyscalculia. SLD disorders are subject to regulation in compliance with the Law no. 170/ October, 10, 2010. 



In compliance withD.Lgs. 81/2008, the Risk Assessment Document is a compulsory report that must be present within the workplace and that must be available for a possible examination by the supervisory bodies. This document's aim consists in identifying all risks present in a working environment and in performing the duties that can damage health. This document establishes and suggests adequate measures to prevent and control every form of risks. 



ECDL is the acronym for  European Computer Driving Licence. It is a certificate that testifies the achievement of basic computer skills. It identifies with the ability of working in front of a PC by using common apps and IT common expertise. 



It's a teaching method that give the chance of providing e-learning educational contents through Internet or intranet networks. Fot the user e-learning represents a flexible learning method, because it is customizable and easy to access to it. 


EQDL is the acronym for European Quality Driving Licence and certifies the achievement of the essential requirements of knowledge of notions, rules, methods and process used in the Quality Policy, regardless of the individual professional experiences. Istituto S. Freud is an EQDL test center.  



It is necessary to sit examinations of competence to access to the next class with regard to the class you possess the required qualifications for ammission; it concerns the complete study programs of the previous classes.



It consists in tests you have to attend at the school location before the beginning of the new school year concerning school subjects that are not included in the study plan of your school of origin. You have to take it to access to the next class with regard to the class you have already passed in case of change of school curriculum.  



External candidates take preliminary examinations - where required- at the School Institutions appointed as exam centers. 
External candidates who haven't passed the last year or achieved the attestation of competence, even if referred to a course of study in the European Union at an equivalent level, are eligible to take the State Exam only before passing a preliminary examination whose primary aim consists in checking their knowledge of the school-subjects of the last year or for those years they haven't achieved the attestation of competence. As far as concerns the type of tests to be taken, we refer to written or graphic tests, practical or oral tests, in accordance to the specific study plan. Regarding the identification of the several tests to be taken during the preliminary examination, you must take into consideration the school credits achieved by the candidates and properly documented.  
There also candidates who can take the preliminary examination. Those who have passed the last year or achieved the attestation of competence, even if referred to a course of study in the European Union at an equivalent level. More precisely, those ones  haven't attended the last school year and don't have qualifications to be scrutinized fot the State Exam ammission. 



Final State Exams of Upper Schools (there is a State Exam even in the last year of Middle School) allow access to University or to professional world. They consist in written and oral tests. Written tests are established by the Ministry of Education and are all the same in Italy for the same schoool institutions. It consists in three tests: the first and second test is provided by the Ministry of Education, the third test is drafted by each Examination Committee:

·         First test : analysis of a literary test, writing of a short essay or of an article journalistic in its form.  

·         Second test : concerning a school subject characterizing the school curriculum.

Third test:  focusing on no more of 5 school-subjects: it consists in a synthetic essay of no more of 5 topics, but also  in answers to questions,  in resolution of scientific problems or in the drafting of a project. 



Upper Technical Training Courses. These are projects planned and realized by Upper School Institutions, accredited Vocational Training Centers, Universities and companies. They want to train qualified technicians able to control and manage organisational and productive processes of the enterprise. They are planned by the Local Regions on the basis of their specific competences in terms of planning of Educational Offer. They last for a period of two semesters,  for a total of 800/1000 hours and are addressed to obtain a certificate of technical specialization. Young people and adults who have a  Final Degree of Upper School or a four-years Vocational Certificate  obtained in the field of Vocational Education and Training (FP) can subscribe to IFTS.



Projects of Work-Related School Experience can include the approach of Business Simulation. 

 Business Simulation approach (IFS) enables to learn real working processes through the simulation of the realization, active in networks and supported by real companies. It's a new and stimulating way to enhance specific contents and to get closer the professional world in an interactive and funny way, in a practical context of simulation that reduces the distance between theoretical and practical experience. 



It's a professional figure that because of his/her specific training supports the student, by ensuring a proper education - due to personalized intervention strategies-  and that plays an important role in the process of inclusion. His/ Her role is appointed by the Local School Board under request of the Principal on the basis of confirmation of handicap situation statified by an expert or present in the Functional Diagnosis. 



It's a standardized test administered by the National Institute of Evaluation of the Educational  and Training System addressed to students of several school institutions.  It's not anthitetic to the summative and educational assessment performed by teachers during their lessons, but want to represent a useful landmark to complete the already existing elements of evaluation. p


Upper Secondary Schools that last five years. They end with a State Examination and the release of a relative diploma.

The identity of the technical institutes is characterized by a solid cultural basis concerning science and technology by following the guidelines of the European Union, built through the study, the consolidation and the application of languages and methodologies with general and specific features. It expresses in a varieti of curricula, related to important sectors for the economical and productive development of the Country- whose aim is to let the students achieve the necessary knowldege and ability - concerning the activity of technical professions- to be included in the professional world and to access to Universities and to the upper technical field of education,

The areas of the technical institutes are divided into:

·         business area concerning the following curricula: 

1.       Administration, Finance and Marketing

2.       Tourism

·         technological area concerning the following curricula

1.       Engineering, Mechatronics and Energy

2.       Transport and Logistics

3.       Electronics and Electrotechnics

4.       ITC - Information and Technology Communication

5.       Graphics and Communication 

6.       Chemistry, Material Sciences and Biotechnology  

7.       Fashion Trade

8.       Agrarian and Agroalimentar Economy, Agro- Industry

9.       Constructions, Environment and Territory



The School Institution manages - at an administrative or educational level- one or more school centres, such as primary schools and primary school's institutions, remote or coordinate offices of lower and upper secondary schools. Every school institution is chaired by a a Principal.



It includes several kind of schools ( lyceums, technical and professional institutes) that after the State Examination, release a a qualification recognized by the Italian Goverment.



The School Manager or Legal Representative is the physical person thar represents the Manager of the School Admistration and is responsible for the legal school affairs.



In the area of School Learning Disorders, exempt measures are interventions that allow the students not to carry out any performance  that- because of their disorder- can result particularly difficult and don't improve their learning process.



Acronym for Ministry of Education, University and Research. 



The Rules of Procedure published with the Ministry Decree 22 August 2007, n. 139 implementing the Law n. 296/2006, art 1 c 622 has raised the compulsory education to ten years. The process of compulsory education can be performed not only within the traditional educational schooling ( High Schools, Vocational and Technical Institutes) but also in Training and Vocational Schooling provided by Regione Lombardia. Their duration is three years. 
The process of Compulsory Education has no final term, but it is addressed to the achievement of a Degree of Upper School or a Vocational Certificate by 18 years old. L


Collegiate bodies are bodies of management of school activities - at a local level- of every single school institution. They are composed by the representatives of the different components and are divided into local collegiate bodies ans school collegiate bodies. They are named as CLASS COUNCIL for upper secondary school.  



The organization chart is a simple but articulated chart that represents the organisational structure of a business or of an institution. Through flow charts,sections or lines, it highlights the bodies present within the organization and the relationships among the several contact pesons and the activities they carry out.  


CEM ( English for PEC)

CEM or Certified E- Mail is a system that enables to send an e-mail with legal value and it is equalised to a certified letter with advice of delivery, in compliance with the current regulation  (DPR 11 February 2005 no.68).



The Evacuation Plan is an operational tool with which the School has to plan and prepare the opearting procedures in case of emergency, so that the school population can evacuate the school location without any risk for its safety. 



" Plan of Educational Offer". It is a document that represents the school's  identity. In this document it is to find the distinctive lines of the Institute, its cultural and pedagogical philosophy, its curricular,  extra-curricular, teaching and organisational  planning of its activities. . 



Supplementary extra hours of a Second Language ( L2) different from the curricular study-plan, targeted to the the skills reinforcing concerning the target language.



The first two years of Upper Secondary School constitute an equivalent school term of orientation with school subjects common to different kind of schools. 



Teaching Programme consists in a document written by teachers with the precise planning of methods, contents and timeframe for the development of the annual teaching activities. It is  divided into learning units collecting a certain number of teaching units. The teaching unit represents the minimum unit of the programme because it is addressed to the fulfillment of a specific objective. 



It has got the same institutional purpose of POF, but its planning and main objectives are valid for three years at least. The PTOF document is written by the Principal and then approved by the teaching staff. The document shows the current - and in the shorter term-  Educational Offer Plan. At the same time long- term standpoints are also tracked, but also the objectives to reach at the end of the three years and the continuous process of improvement to realize. 



Computer software that has completely replaced the class paper records and the teachers' personal paper files. Now school registers have been released in a digital format. Online register have been "developed" by accredited authorities, such as MIUR and they "record" presence and and absence, delays and school marks.  

The Online Register of S. Freud Institute has been implemented by ad hoc services, i.e. section of circular letters, notices, documents, homework and learning attachment after every lesson, on line  interviews between teachers and families, on line explanations for absences or delays. 



Acronym for Security Workers Representative.



Acronym for Representative of Prevention and Protection Service (see "Security").



Teaching method adopted by the Commercial and Professional Technical Institutes whose objective consists in putting into practice the theoretical notions.  
The activity of simulation starts with the creation of the business, by taking into consideration a real commercial, industrial or service company that exists at a local level.  When establishing this enterprise, you are constantly in contact with it during the whole lenght of the training program. The business will give you all the necessary information to build the same "environment" of your tutor business, where students can carry out their activities, by alternation of their tasks. 



The Youth Information and Counselling Centre ( C.I.C) provides a service of orientation counselling on different topics, such as volunteering, prevention and healthcare and a personalized service of support to every student in order to guarantee his/her school well-being.



The Psychological support represents an important moment of exchange and comparison with an expert that must respect his/her professional secrecy. Students can freely access to this service to speak about themselves, their emotions and their difficulty, to achieve an important degree of self-awareness. Dr. Naomi Aceto is the contact person of the service of  psychological support at Istituto Freud. Dr. Naomi Aceti receives students and families - without any appointment- on Mondays and on Fridays.



Language Learnig Experience in countries where the studied languages are officially spoken. On average it lasts one or two weeks. 



Concerning the area of Study Learning Disorders, compensatory measures represent learning and technological instruments that replace or simplify the performance required in the deficient ability.



It's a specific department of the Secretary Office of S. Freud School that organizes the curricular and extracurricular internships of the students. More specifically, it follows the whole orientation process of the students, the achievement of conventions with the hosting businesses, the design of the educational project and the subsequent supervising of the activities.


PEO ( Italian: USP)

Acronym of Provincial Education Office.


REO ( Italian: USR)

Acronym of Regional Education Office.



Complex of criteria to use in order to have a complete evaluation of the teacher concerning both the teaching method and the professionalism by respecting the deadlines, the presence at school, etc.  



For students of different school cutticula there is a periodic evaluation ( every three of four months) and a final assessment,concerning both  their acquired learning levels and their behaviour.
PAs far as the the process of learning in the different school subjects is concerned, for the students of upper secondary schools we confirm the previous regulation that inclueded the assessment with marks in tenth.

The evaluation in the intermediate class occurs by means of a scrutiny, while for classes at term of their curricula ( third year of lower secondary school and last year of upper secondary schools) the assessment occurs through the State Examination.

The evaluation is registered in a specific document ( the student's individual card) in all forms and ways that each school takes into account and is delivered to the family followed by an explanatory interview. Concerning the access to the next class or to the Exam ( Law 169/200, art. no. 3) students must have a sufficient mark in all school subjects and in the behaviour evaluation.

The possible decision not to admit to the next class or to the exam is taken by the class council in their majority. It is necessary to complete the three quarters of the school time table, to guarantee the validity of the school-year.




Confirmed case 

In accordance to the circular letter - 23th Februar- y 2020 by the Ministry of Health we define " a confirmed case after a laboratory confirmationreceived by the National Institute of Health due to  Sars-Cov-2 infection, independently from clinical signs and symptoms". 


 Probable Case 

It's to consider a probable case , “a suspected case whose result for Sars-Cov-2 test  is doubtful or inconclusive by using specific  Real Time Pcr per Sars-Cov-2 protocols at the reference regional laboratories identified or it is a positive case by using a pan-coronavirus test ”.


Suspected Case

The Ministry of Public Health defines a suspected case “any  person with acute respiratory infection  (sudden onset of at least one of the following symptoms: temperature, cough and dyspnea) who has required the hospitalization or in 14 days after the symptoms onset has responded to one of the following conditions: previous travel history or residence in China;  or close contact with a probable case or a confirmation of  Sars-Cov-2 infection ; or who has worked or has visited  a health centre where patients with Sars-Cov-2 infection have been hospitalized″.



The transmission of an infectious disease from a sick person to an healthy subject through contaminated materials or means  (air, water, food, excretions), i.e trough insects or animals transmitters of the infectious microorganisms. 



It's the official denomination of the pandemic provoked by  Sars-Cov-2 infection ,  as has been defined by WHO. “Co” is for corona, “vi”for  virus and “d” for  disease , while “19” specifies the year of its manifestation. 


Spread of contagion 

It's the daily rate of new cases; the spread can increase, have a steep slope, an horizonyal course, sink, or completely disappear.


In clinical terms, it represents the awareness of a person in scarcely breathing: at the root there is an objective difficulty in exchanging the gaseous matter between blood present in the lungs and air in the inside the alveoli.Disphnea can affect different parts of the body, but in particular the respiratory system, the heart, the blood vessels and blood.  As known, it can be a Coronavirus symptom.  


Social Distancing

The set of non-clinical actions for the control of the infections whose primary aim consists in decelerating or stopping Covid-19 as a contagious disease. By respecting the social distancing, the probabilities of contact of infected people with non infected people decrease; the transmission of the disease and as a consequence the mortality rate is reduced to a minimum.  



Common manifestation of a disease that spreads through a direct or indirect contagion, by affecting a large number of people in a wide or limited area. It is extinguished after a certain period of time.  .



An epidemic outbreak occurs when an infectious disease provokes an increase in the number of cases than expected within a community or in an enclosed area. .


Herd Immunity

It's a mechanism interior in a community: if the majority of individuals has been vaccinated   (or has overcome the disease with its own antibodies) the circulation of an infectious agent is limited by protecting even those who can't be vaccinated.  



It's the pathogenic capability of  developing a new infection for horizontal direct or indirect transmission, which means that it spreads from an infected individual to another through direct contact or by means of a vector. It answers the following question " Is it easy to be transmitted from a subject to another?" and it is measured in terms of  necessary microorganisms, so that a new infection is established. Infectiousness will be at a high  and low rate depending from the number of microorganisms useful to infect another subject,  and viceversa.



Circulation of an excessive amount of information, in some cases not evaluated carefully, that makes difficult to focus on a specific topic for the difficulty of detect in realiable sources.



This term defines the connection between the  number of deaths  provoked by  a disease and the number of sick people in a certain period of time. Even though this term is often used as a synonimous of mortality, both parameters give different information.  Currently, the available information derive from evaluations, which may change in the course of time depending from the epidemic evolution. At the moment the World Health Organization  (WHO) estimates that its lethality is at  2%.



English term that can be translated into Italian with the following words "shutdown " o "isolation". In times of  Coronavirus health crisis , it is used to specify the measures of control adopted by Italy and by other countries in the world to face the pandemic. In fact, this protocol includes practices of isolation, i.e the limitation of the access and exit from and to a given area and the shutdown of all non - primary activities. 



It measures the number of deaths (in general or due to a particular case) in relation to the population exposed in un certain  period of time. For this reason, it provides information about the risk that a patgogen - such as  Sars-Cov-2 implies for the whole population. 


Quarantine/ Isolation

It's the period of isolation and of monitoring required for all the people who have been potentially exposed to the pathogen.  In the case of di Sars-Cov-2 in Italy the period of quarantine has a duration of two weeks. The same term reminds its origin, when this time of isolation corresponded to 40 days. Nowadays, the duration of quartine is established by the health authorities concerning the knowledge of the incubation periods of the disease and of the potential transmission of the virus. 



Epidemic with an inclination to propagate everywhere, i.e to invade huge area and continents in a little time.  


Index Patient 

The first Covid patient who has been identified and who has received therapies within the sample of population in an epidemiological survey.



Peak of the virus transmission. It depends on the spread of contagion. 



It's the denomination of the new coronavirus appeared or the first time in China at the end of January.  At the beginning of the pandemic it was called 2019-nCov, but then the  l’International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has renamed it in the current  Sars-Cov-2 to underline the relation  with the coronavirus responsible for Sars (Sars-Cov, it shares about  l’80% of the genome) and the similarity of the clinical manifestation of both infections (Covid-19 e Sars).


Asymptomatic person 

A subject who  suffers from a disease, but he/she doesn't present any apparent symptom. There is a period of time called “incubation” where the contagious disease is already present without presenting any symptoms: incubation is “asymptomatic ” and finishes when the patient presents the first symptoms. Therefore, the disease is not more  “asymtomatic” but “symptomatic”. A disease can be asymptomatic for long or short periods of time; some diseases can be always asymptomatic.  



The period of time where the pathogen is  contagious out of his/her host  (on the surfaces, for example). As reported in the Faq by the Ministry of Public Health  “preliminar information suggest that the virus can resist  some hours,  even though it's still being studied. The use of common sanitiziers is able to kill the virus by cancelling its contagious capability, for example sanitiziers containing alcohol  (ethanol) to 75% or to 1%  chlorine-based (bleach)”.


Covid Swab 

Laryngopharyngeal test that permits  to determine the positivity to virus.  


Covid Swab Test 

It's the first test that the healthcare professionals take on people at risk (for example on Italians repatriated to the countries affected by the epidemic ) and on  suspected cases. It consists in the removal of  biological material from the respiratory tracts through a  pharingeal swab, i.e a cotton swab collecting mucus and saliva. These samples are sent to t authorized analysis laboratories (in Italy to the Istituto Spallanzani in Rom and to Ospedale Sacco in Milan), where, by means of techniques of molecular biology, it's possible to find viral genetic material. If presentit will be  amplified, i.e copied  many times, to make it detectable and available for its identification. As a matter of fact, human beings come into contact with many different viruses (first of all, in this period the virus of  seasonal influenza) and it is necessary to check the presence of  specific sequences to make sure that is  Sars-Cov-2 virus. The results of this kind of test are available within few hours. 


Immunorbent Assay Test

It's the medical term that specifies the test which identifies in the serum (the liquid part of the blood ) the probable presence of specific antibodies  against any pathogen. Generally speaking, these tests use the so-called key-lock mechanism in the couple antibody- antigen ( i.e a part of the pathogen): if you want to test the presence of an antibody in the serum you can introduce in the sample its antigen connected to a molecule which, after an enzymatic reaction, will make clear the relation of both elements. 



It's the capability of a pathogen that has infected an organism to give birth to an evident disease. As reported by WHO, “the majority  (80%) of people recovers from the disease without any partcular treatment. About 1- 6 person -getting Covid-19  virus- develops  serious symptoms with breathing difficulty.  Old people  and those suffering from pre-existing problems, such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disorder or diabetes are at risk to develop the severe form of the disease.  About 2% of people who develop this disease die”.



In biology, it's a term that represents a group of organisms. They have a non-cellular nature, submicroscopic dimensions and are unable to have an independent metabolism. Therefore, they are characterized by an obliged intracellular parasital life and are formed by a nucleic acid (genome) capped with a proteine shell  (capsid). When a virus is able to penetrate inside a cell with whom has come into contact, its genome is assimilated into the genetic material of the host cell, by modifying its genetic inheritance and obliging it to synthetize nucleic acids and viral proteins. Therefore, the virus will be replicated.

S. Freud Paritary Institute - Private School Milan - Paritary School: IT Technical Institute, Tourism Technical Institute, High School of Human Sciences and High School
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